The UK is in a unique position to be at the forefront of the connected and automated vehicle (CAV) market which has the potential to be worth £42 billion per year to the UK economy by 2035. Our specialist team of CAV lawyers are at the cutting edge of developments working on ground-breaking projects and thought leadership on legal and regulatory issues and reform. We advise on a broad range of CAV issues from intellectual property and cyber security to the allocation of risk and liability. We have led on the development of emerging regulation and CAV standards.

Our CAV team combines experience and expertise to help clients unlock the commercial opportunities of driverless cars. We advise on CAV legal issues from establishing collaborative partnerships to risk and insurance and data protection. Our team comprises experts in regulation, insurance, automotive, intellectual property, technology, data protection and cyber security combined with industry recognised transport sector experts.

Our CAV experience is combined with extensive experience advising on low emissions vehicle technology, infrastructure and powertrain issues (including electric charging and storage networks) as well as innovative aspects of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) and demand responsive transport. Building on our expertise in traditional transport modes and solutions, together these give us a complete view to advise across current and future development of transport technology and intelligent mobility services.

We deliver technical excellence and commercially astute advice to both the public and private sectors on all aspects of CAVs and CAV technology and systems.

We have been the legal partner on numerous Government-funded CAV projects and been authors or technical group members for a number of CAV papers, publicly available specifications and glossaries for the BSI.

What are connected and autonomous vehicles?

The Department for Transport’s (DfT) Code of Practice describes an automated driving system as one that “uses both hardware and software to perform all of the dynamic driving tasks” when activated. While the reality of fully automated vehicles on our roads is some way off, many connected vehicles already exist on our roads. Connected vehicle technologies allow vehicles to talk to each other and to the infrastructure around them and have the potential in themselves to improve safety and driving experiences. Many people will already be familiar with connected vehicle technologies, e.g. satellite navigation, telematics, intelligent lane control and speed assistance and 'eCall'.

CAVs are often discussed in the context of ‘levels of automation’. The levels of automation (as prescribed by SAE International Standard J3016) describe the level of automated vehicle technology.


Partner to the VENTURER consortium investigating the public acceptance of driverless cars. We are working in collaboration with AXA to investigate the insurance and liability enablers for bringing driverless cars to the market.

Partner to the FLOURISH consortium identifying innovative solutions designed to realise the market readiness of CAVs, in particular in relation to the use of data and cyber security.

Partner to the CAPRI consortium advising on data and liability aspects in respect of use of automated pods on and off highway.

Partner to the ROBOPILOT consortium advising on regulatory and legal aspects of using automated vehicles for freight and logistics applications.

Partner to the ResiCAV+ consortium advising Zenzic/CCAV on automotive safety aspects around cyber-security.

Technical author, steering group member or advisory group member on the following BSI papers and specifications as part of its CCAV-sponsored CAV programme:
- PAS 1881 - Assuring the operational safety of automated vehicles – Specification
- PAS 1882 - Data collection and management for automated vehicle trials for the purpose of incident investigation – Specification
- PAS 1883 - Operational Design Domain (ODD) taxonomy for an automated driving system (ADS) – Specification
- PAS 1884 - Safety operators in automated vehicle testing and trialling – Guide
- BSI Flex 1890 - CAV Vocabulary - A dynamic and interactive vocabulary of key CAV terms, abbreviations and acronyms
- BSI Flex 1889 - Natural language description for abstract scenarios for automated driving systems – Specification
- BSI White paper: Connected and automated vehicles: A review of the UK’s legislation and good practice (June 2022)

Advising CCAV and Innovate on aspects of legal liability and safety in respect of operation of automated vehicles.

Advising local authorities (including cities) on automated vehicle feasibility projects.

Zenzic CAM Creator and contributor to the UK’s CAM Roadmap.

Contributor and collaborator with Law Commissions on their 3 year review of UK legislation to recommend reforms for automated vehicles.

Advising RAC on its development of Connected Car telematics solutions to support its insurance, fleet management and breakdown services.

Advising ULTra (BAA subsidiary) on the arrangements for the international commercialisation and licensing of intellectual property for software-controlled driverless pods, including at Heathrow Airport terminal 5.

Co-founder and sponsor of the All Party Parliamentary Group for Connected and Automated Mobility.

Meet the team
Chris Jackson

Chris Jackson Partner

  • Infrastructure
  • Procurement and State Aid
  • Transport
Brian Wong

Brian Wong Partner

  • Rail
  • Highways and Road Transport
  • Judicial Review and Public Law
Lucy Pegler

Lucy Pegler Partner

  • Technology and Communications
  • Data Protection and Cybersecurity
  • Outsourcing

Levels of automation

Human driver monitors driving environment

  • Level 0
    No Driving Automation
    Human driver controls all aspects of driving all of the time. Assistance features are limited to providing warnings or momentary assistance only (examples include automatic emergency braking or lane departure warnings).
  • Level 1
    Driver Assistance
    Human driver is assisted with either steering or acceleration/deceleration by the driver assistance system with the expectation that the human driver will perform all remaining functions. Assistance features of this type include lane control or adaptive cruise control.
  • Level 2

    Partial Driving Automation
    Driver assistance system undertakes steering and acceleration/deceleration using information about the driving environment with the expectation that the human driver will perform all other driving tasks. This applies where lane control and cruise control may simultaneously operate.

Automated driving system monitors driving environment

  • Level 3
    Conditional Driving Automation
    Automated driving system undertakes all aspects of the dynamic driving task in defined circumstances with the expectation that the human driver will respond appropriately to a request to intervene. Examples include traffic jam chauffeur applications.
  • Level 4
    High Driving Automation
    Automated driving system undertakes all aspects of the dynamic driving task in defined circumstances, even if a human driver does not respond appropriately to a request to intervene.
  • Level 5
    Full Driving Automation
    Automated driving system undertakes all aspects of the dynamic driving tasks in all roadway and environmental conditions.

What others say...

Excellent knowledge of the industry and an understanding of how our business works.
Legal 500 2023


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